The policy of Belgium within the EU

In this section you learn more about the policy of Belgium within the European Union.

European law

Representation of Belgium before the European courts (CJEU and EFTA Court).
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Representation of Belgium before the European courts

Who we are

Our Directorate of European Law represents Belgium before the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Free Trade Association Court in Luxembourg. The Directorate is headed by Director and Deputy to the Director-General, Carinne Pochet. Along with seven of her staff members, Liesbet Van den Broeck, Marie Jacobs, Pierre Cottin, Stephen Baeyens, Maïté Van Regemorter and Antoine De Brouwer et Cécile Jacob, she is also an Agent of the Kingdom of Belgium to the CJEU and the EFTA Court. As Agents, they are backed by a secretariat comprising four employees, i.e., Florence Misson, Cynthia Sortino, Nadine Moens and Céline Glineur.


The Court of Justice of the European Union has its seat in Luxembourg and consists of two courts, i.e., the Court of Justice and the General Court.

In 2021, three Belgians were member of the CJEU. Koen Lenaerts sits as Judge at the Court of Justice since 2003, after having served on the General Court since 1989. He is now President of this Institution, having previously held the position of Vice-President. The General Court currently comprises two Belgian Judges, i.e., Paul Nihoul, who took office on 1 September 2016, and Geert De Baere, in office since 4 October 2017.

The European Free Trade Association Court also sits in Luxembourg and consists of three Judges nominated by the three members who are also members of the European Economic Area (EEA) i.e., Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein (with the exception of Switzerland). This Court rules on the implementation, application and interpretation of EEA legislation. Following the example of the questions referred to the Court of Justice, Belgium is entitled to lodge observations on the questions referred by the EFTA Member States, with the exception of Switzerland, which is not an EEA Member State, to the EFTA Court, which will then provide an advisory opinion.

Annual report of the Representation of Belgium before the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Free Trade Association Court

Since 2008, the Directorate of European Law presents an annual report on its activities. Those reports contain the submissions the Belgian Government has made to the cases heard by the CJEU and the EFTA Court. They also provide information on the cases treated by J2 agents and statistical data on the interventions of Belgium before the EU Courts and the EFTA Court.

Annual reports

The annual reports are available in Dutch and French.


  • L. Van den Broeck, Duitse tolheffing voor buitenlandse personenwagens niet voor morgen, SEW 2020, p. 43-46
  • P. Cottin, La non-communication de mesures de transposition d’une directive : la Cour a tranché, JDE 2020, n° 267, p. 101 – 104.
  • L. Van den Broeck, Hoe veroordeling door het Hof van Justitie vermijden?, SEW 2016, p. 425-435
  • L. Van den Broeck, Indirecte discriminatie op grond van nationaliteit: rechtvaardigingsgronden in het diensten- en personenverkeer, 2014, 418 p.
  • L. Van den Broeck, Noot bij het arrest Giersch e.a./Groothertogdom Luxemburg (C-20/12), SEW 2013, p. 573-576
  • L. Van den Broeck, Interview in Interviewing European Union: Wilhelm Meister in EU law, 2013, p. 296-308
  • M. Jacobs et L. Van den Broeck, À quelles conditions les étudiants peuvent-ils étudier à l’étranger avec une bourse d’étude de l’État membre de résidence ?, JDE 2012, p. 289-294
  • L. Van den Broeck, “Ik ga op reis en ik neem mee…” in Vrij verkeer van personen in 60 arresten: de zegeningen van het Europees burgerschap, 2012, p. 333-338
  • L. Van den Broeck, “Toepassing en afdwinging van internemarktregels” in Europees recht: moderne interne markt voor de praktijkjurist, Postuniversitaire Cyclus Willy Delva, 2012, p. 285-313
  • L. Van den Broeck, Het Hof van Justitie onder de Lissabon-loep, Juristenkrant 2010, p. 3


On a regular basis, the Federal Administration Training Institute (OFO/IFA) organises a training course that provides tips and tricks on how to defend Belgian interests before the Court of Justice of the European Union. This one-day course focuses on the functioning of the CJEU, on its main procedures and on the written and oral stages.

On this page, you will find more information on the defence of Belgian interests before the CJEU in Dutch and in French

Meet Foreign Affairs

Two colleagues of the European Law Directorate are part of the group of speakers of FPS Foreign Affairs who can be invited to conferences or other public events.

Get to know our FPS Ambassadors at Meet Foreign Affairs.