Disarmament & non-proliferation
The development of nuclear programmes for military purposes by countries striving for regional dominance, the use of chemical weapons by state and non-state actors in certain conflict zones or the issue of diversion of conventional weapons are all threats underlining the importance of prevention and control in the field of armament.
Belgium considers international security as one and indivisible. This implies that in the field of disarmament, we have to make progress both regarding conventional and non-conventional weapons. Since non-proliferation and disarmament are inextricably linked, Belgium adopts a global approach, striving for balanced progress in both domains.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Top of the international security agenda is the definition of a results-oriented response to the threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) both by states and non-state actors, including terrorist groups.
These WMD or non-conventional weapons are intended to cause a large number of victims and to inflict a lot of damage. They are characterized by their non-discriminatory nature and their long term effects. The following types of weapons are considered to be WMD:
Given the fact that the threats related to WMD are not limited to a national territory, Belgium considers it a necessity to tackle these threats in a regional context. The current major dossiers such as Iran or North – Korea prove this point. They demand constant attention and continuous efforts to find diplomatic solutions.
An effective multilateral approach offers the best response to such challenges. Common positions agreed by the European Union (EU) are particularly relevant because they greatly enhance the impact of our efforts. This is borne out by the implementation of the EU’s strategy on Weapons of Mass Destruction, which was adopted in 2003 and has currently reached cruising speed.
The threat of WMD must not make us forget that we still face some major challenges in the domain of “human security”. The key issue here is personal security of human beings, often the most vulnerable, both during and after conventional conflicts. In many countries - and definitely in Africa and Central - America - the threat posed by WMD is overshadowed by everyday dramas caused by clashes involving the use of conventional arms.
With this in mind, Belgium’s diplomatic service endeavors to keep the issue of “human security” on top of the agenda of the main international institutions. Belgian played a pioneering role in the implementation of the Ottawa Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines and of the Oslo Convention on Cluster Munitions as well as in the conclusion of the Arms Trade Treaty ; in the battle against illicit arms trade and in raising international attention for the issue of child soldiers.
A credible international security policy cannot ignore such problematic issues. Security is indivisible and therefore requires realistic, global investments and unwavering diplomatic efforts both in the field of WMD as in the field of conventional weapons. The following scheme is a succinct graphic presentation of the approach.
Export control of strategic goods
The export of weapons and dual use goods is subject to control in order to safeguard international security. Companies dealing in these strategic goods have to comply with strict rules.
In Belgium, the three Regional Authorities are responsible for issuing licenses for the import, export and transit of weapons, defence-related products and dual use goods, with the exception of licenses requested by the Belgian Army or the Federal Police.
The export of nuclear goods is subject to the prior authorization by the Federal Minister of Energy, based on the advice by the Belgian Advisory Committee for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.